McCullough’s Migration to the United States:
This information was compiled by Richard McCullough of the Coffee County Tennessee McCulloughs. When the McCulloughs began migrating into North America in the middle 1700’s, most people could not read or write. Records in Coffee and surrounding counties indicate that the original James Martin McCullough’s name was spelled McCulloch, McCullock, McCullo, McCuller, and McCullough. Since most people could not read, the spelling of the name was left up to the person entering the information into record. Even in the time of John Daniel McCullough, there was a period of time when the family spelled the name McCollough.Modem spelling variations of the McCullough name include: M’Cullough, M’Culloch, MacCulloch, McCulloch, M’Cullogh, McColloch, McCulley, McCullie, McCullo, McCulloh, McCullah, McCully, MacCullough, McCollough, and McCullagh. It is quite possible that a large number of our direct relatives are using one of the McCullough spelling variations given.
In the 1860 census of Tennessee, McCulloughs were using many of the above spelling variations. The following is a list of the spellings used and the counties where they were listed:

McCollough
Hancock
Wilson
Blount
Bradley
Cumberland
Hawkins
Jefferson

McCullock
Jefferson
Hancock
Greene

McCulloch
Rutherford
Washington
Greene
Marshall
Blount

McCullah
Rutherford
Sevier
Hawkins

McCullie
Bledsoe

McCully
Hawkins
Shelby
Overton
Fayette
Campbell
Tipton
Sullivan
McMinn
Rhea
Blount

McCuller
Coffee
McNairy
Tipton
Hardin
Shelby
Montgomery
McMinn

McCullough

Henry
Marshall
Grundy
Blount
Putnam
Davidson
Hawkins
Roane
Dyer
Coffee
McCulley
Bradley
White
Wayne
Lincoln

McCullogh
Knox
Bedford
Knox
Cannon
Fayette
Madison
Washington
Greene
Hancock
Shelby

Most ancestors of McCulloughs currently living in the United States immigrated from either Ireland or Scotland. Our branch of the McCullough family has lived in North America since the early 1700’s. To understand why they left their homes, an understanding of the political and religious situation of that day is needed. As mentioned in the history section of this book, the McCullough name originated in the Galloway area of Scotland. In the earl 1500’s, the entire area of Great Britain was Catholic. In the mid 1500’s, the Anglican Church (The Church of England) came into existence, breaking away from the Catholic Church and causing much blood shed and strife. The Throne of England was also split between Catholic and Protestant. Some Protestant wanted to break further from the Catholic Church than did the Anglican Church. Among these was John Knox whose Calvinistic views helped paved the way for other Protestant group formations including the Presbyterian Church. During this time, most McCulloughs were Presbyterian, however many belonged to the Anglican Church. In the late 1600’s and early 1700′ England was Protestant, Ireland was Catholic, and Scotland was the battle ground. Most of the eastern Highland Clans remained Catholic; the western Clans were Protestant, and the lower Scottish districts, including Galloway we mixed.Many Catholic clans wanted to return a Catholic, Charles Edward Stuart Bonnie Prince Charlie, to the Throne. The Protestant clans supported the English in refusing to allow a Catholic to rule. By all rights, Prince Charles was next in line to the throne. This brought about the first rebellion in 1712 and the most serious revolt in 1745. The British loyal clans, however, put down both rebellions many of the Highlanders could not forget. The clan system all but disappeared during this period, and many Scots left Scotland for America and Canada. There were several McCulloughs listed as Jacobites and we exiled from Scotland to North America. A Jacobite was a supporter of Bonn Prince Charlie.
Our Ancestors had already left Scotland during this time. After the death of Sir Godfrey McCulloch in 1697, the first of our line, as did many other McCulloch’s, left the Galloway area of Scotland. Some went to Ireland, and others went to North America. Two McCullough men (one spelled McCullough and the other McCullock) left Scotland and settled in the Augusta County, previously Orange County area of Virginia. Records do not indicate the exact area of Scotland they left, but due to dates taken from ship registries, logic suggest that after the death of the clan chieftain, they left Galloway for America. In November of 1698, John McCullough boarded the Perry and Lane in Liverpool, England, and set sail for Virginia. Thomas McCullock boarded the John Baptist in London, England in December of the same year and also sailed to Virginia. Records do not indicate which one these two was our ancestor, since they boarded the ship in England, they most likely had come from Scotland. There were no major sea ports on the Atlantic side of Scotland and those wishing to go to America or Canada would sail from either a British or an Irish harbor. If they had lived in Ireland, they mo likely would have sailed from a port there. This is only speculation and cannot be proven. It is very interesting to note that the first white settlement in America was established only 91 years earlier. The Jamestown settlement in Virginia was established in 1607. Only a fraction of the immigrants from the British Isles had entered North America by 1700. It would be nearly 76 years before the American Revolution would began.